All That Glitters: Hans Holbein’s Lady of the Cromwell Family, by Teri Fitzgerald

Editor’s Note: is honored to host this fascinating and exquisitely researched article highlighting Teri Fitzgerald’s brilliant analysis of Han Holbein the Younger’s masterpiece Lady of the Cromwell Family. Who is she? Well, this beautiful young woman certainly is not Queen Catherine Howard.

When Teri reached out to me to share her delightfully intriguing analysis, she also shared a fantastic podcast highlighting Diarmaid MacCulloch and Hilary Mantel.  After enjoying Teri’s outstanding article, do head on over to our friends at Church Times! As always, Diarmaid MacCulloch and Hilary Mantel share their brilliance and interest in Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex.

“At Launde Abbey last month, Dame Hilary Mantel and Professor Diarmaid MacCulloch reflected on the life of Thomas Cromwell and his place in the Reformation. They were speaking at an event to mark the 900th anniversary of Launde Abbey, which Cromwell was fond of visiting.” — Church Times

Podcast: Hilary Mantel and Diarmaid MacCulloch at Launde Abbey: Remembering Thomas Cromwell

Transcript: Make Something of Me — Creating Thomas Cromwell

Books by Hilary Mantel 

Books by Diarmaid MacCulloch


1. Portrait of a Lady, Probably a Member of the Cromwell Family, here identified as Elizabeth Seymour. c. 1535-40. Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/98-1543). Oil on wood panel, 72 cm x 49.5 cm. Toledo Museum of Art. 1926.57

All That Glitters: Hans Holbein’s Lady of the Cromwell Family

By Teri Fitzgerald


A portrait of a young noblewoman by Hans Holbein at the Toledo Museum of Art remains the subject of debate. Once thought to have been a depiction of Queen Catherine Howard, the fifth consort of Henry VIII, and subsequently, a member of the Cromwell family, there is to date, no consensus on the sitter’s identity. Hidden in her exquisite golden finery are heraldic clues that make it possible to reveal her name.


One of a collection of portraits by Hans Holbein the Younger that immortalises the court of Henry VIII, Portrait of a Lady, probably a Member of the Cromwell Family, at the Toledo Museum of Art, remains tantalisingly unidentified (fig. 1). There are two extant copies: a sixteenth century version at Hever Castle in Kent, and another at the National Portrait Gallery in London dating from the late seventeenth century. The Toledo portrait is acknowledged to be the original and painted by Hans Holbein circa 1535–1540, although the style of the lady’s French hood is more in keeping with the later end of that date range. (1)

The sumptuous clothing and jewellery worn by the sitter indicates that she is a lady of the highest status, perhaps royalty. Although her name has remained elusive, her age, twenty-one, is inscribed in gold on the portrait. The painting belonged to the Cromwell family for centuries, so she is thought to have been a member of that prominent family. She wears a French hood edged with white, heavily embroidered in gold, with a falling black veil. She has auburn hair, parted in the middle and blue-grey eyes. Around her neck she wears a necklace set with pearls and diamonds, to which is attached a pendant jewel. She is wearing a black satin gown, with a square black velvet yoke, open at the neck and turned back to show the white lining. The wing-like sleeves, decorated with stylised vines in gold with a fleur de lys motif, are fastened at intervals with gold aiglets, with richly embroidered cambric ruffles showing at the wrists. Framed by the crisp white of the hood and the lining of her upturned collar, ‘is a face without evasion, as firm as it is intelligent, of extreme maturity’ for her age. (2)

On the bodice of her gown, is a brooch from which hangs a circular pendant with a diamond at the
centre and a biblical theme: Lot with his family, guided by an angel, fleeing from Sodom. To the left
of the central gem is Lot’s wife who was turned to a pillar of salt because she disobeyed God and
looked back to Sodom. A design by Holbein for this pendant survives in the British Museum. (3)
‘His choice in this portrait was not so much motivated by a wish to propose a moral to his sitter, but rather to emphasize the boldness of his concetto. Presenting a jewel as a petrified body enhances the power of the artist, who can effect the same transformation on his sitter. As a result of his concetto the stone becomes a vivid metaphor of the metamorphosis operated by the portrait.’ (4) Another large circular jewel, probably also designed by Holbein, is attached to her girdle, depicting God the Father enthroned, flanked by angels. (5) The latter can be seen more clearly on a copy of the portrait at the National Portrait Gallery in London.

The portrait not only demonstrates Holbein’s skill both as an artist, and a goldsmith, but also his
ingenuity. As we will discover, ‘all that glitters, is not gold’, it is instead an elaborate heraldic rebus
that holds the key to a centuries-old mystery — the identity of the lady.

In 1909 when the portrait was submitted for examination by the owners, the Cromwell family, the lady was identified as Queen Catherine Howard by Lionel Cust, after linking it with a seventeenth-century version in the National Portrait Gallery, as well as the subject of a miniature in two versions, and a drawing in the  Royal Collection at Windsor. (6) His findings were subsequently published in the Burlington Magazine in 1910. (7)  The portrait had been in the possession of the Cromwell family for hundreds of years, and during that time was thought to be, successively, ‘Cromwell’s mother’, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk, and Eleanor Brandon, Countess of Cumberland, but not Catherine Howard. (8) It would indeed have been ironic if the Cromwell family had preserved, copied, and handed down a portrait of ‘a lady whom Henry VIII married on the very day on which he executed his deposed minister, Thomas Cromwell’. (9) Cust’s identification stood unchallenged until doubts were raised about the sitter’s identity in the catalogue of The Kings and Queens of England exhibition held at Liverpool in 1953. (10)

A forthright attempt to re-identify the lady as Queen Catherine Howard was made by Bendor Grosvenor, David Starkey and Alasdair Hawkyard in the Lost faces exhibition catalogue in 2007, but the identification of the sitter as Henry VIII’s fifth wife rests on questionable physiognomic comparisons, descriptions of jewellery that are ‘relatively generic’, and not identified in an inventory of her jewels. (11) The subject is ‘evidently not a queen’ they argue so she must have been painted after she joined the court, and before her marriage. This would require her to have been born between 1517 and 1519, which makes her significantly older than some of the other maids of honour in 1539, and ‘negates every piece of evidence we have from her childhood.’ The other maids of honour appointed to serve Anne of Cleves were all in their mid to late teens, with the majority in the younger group. Catherine Howard’s biographers, Gareth Russell and Josephine Wilkinson have each argued that Queen Catherine was in her teens at the time of her marriage in 1540. (12) Nevertheless, the association of this portrait with Henry’s queen still has support.

In 1967 Roy Strong, following the lead of C. K. Adams, noted that both the Toledo portrait and the National Portrait Gallery version appear in the context of a series of portraits of members of the family of the Protector’s uncle, Oliver Cromwell (1562/6–1655), and have provenances linking them with the Cromwell family. Strong argued that the portrait in the Toledo Museum of Art, ‘should by rights depict a lady of the Cromwell family aged 21 c.1535–40’ and suggested that the lady might be Elizabeth Seymour, wife of Gregory Lord Cromwell, son of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex. (13) He concluded that since the year of her birth was unknown and there were no certain portraits for comparison, the portrait should be called ‘A Lady of the Cromwell Family’. Strong’s theory about the sitter’s identity, while accepted by some art historians, is disputed. (14)

The Cromwell Family

The Toledo portrait descended with the Cromwell-Bush family portraits, and was first recorded in the family home at Cheshunt Park, Hertfordshire, by G. P. Harding in the lifetime of Oliver Cromwell (1742–1821). (15) These were descendants of Thomas Cromwell’s nephew, Sir Richard Cromwell alias Williams (c.1510–1544) and Frances Murfyn (c.1520–c.1543).

Richard Cromwell, the son of Morgan Williams, and Thomas Cromwell’s sister, Catherine, had
married Frances Murfyn by 8 March 1534. (16) Frances was the daughter of Thomas Murfyn (d. 1523), an alderman and former lord mayor of London, by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter, and heir, of Sir Angel Donne, alderman of London and Anne Hawardine of Cheshire. Her mother subsequently married Sir Thomas Denys in 1524. Richard and Frances would have two sons: Henry, born around 1537 and Francis in about 1541. (17) When his uncle made his will in 1529, Richard was a servant of the Marquess of Dorset, but at some point after Dorset’s death in October 1530, he entered his uncle’s household and adopted the name Cromwell. He had been made a gentleman of the Privy Chamber by 1539 and was knighted during a tournament at Westminster in May 1540. (18) By then he was wealthy and well-connected: his uncle, already related to the king through his son, Gregory’s marriage to the Queen’s younger sister, Elizabeth Seymour in 1537, was newly-made Earl of Essex and Lord Great Chamberlain. (19) Sir Richard and his wife were apparently unaffected by the Earl’s fall from power in mid-1540, continuing to benefit from offices and royal grants. (20) Lady Frances was still living in June 1542, but had died before her husband made his will, which was dated 20 June 1544. Sir Richard died (20) October 1544, and was survived by his sons, Henry, aged seven and Francis, three. (21)

That the Toledo portrait was preserved by the descendants of Sir Richard Cromwell and not those of Gregory Cromwell might suggest that the portrait depicts his wife, Frances Murfyn who would have been twenty-one in about 1541, and of suitable status, but the wife of Gregory Lord Cromwell has a stronger claim.

Born by 1518, Elizabeth Seymour was a younger daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wolf Hall in
Wiltshire and Margery, daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth of Nettlestead, Suffolk. Her siblings
included Edward, the future Protector Somerset and Jane, third wife of Henry VIII. (22)

2. The Monument to Sir John Seymour in Great Bedwyn Church consists of a chest tomb displaying heraldic escutcheons, surmounted by his recumbent effigy, fully dressed in armour with hands in prayer, his head resting on his helm from which projects the sculpted Seymour crest of a pair of wings

Elizabeth Seymour would play a brief, but prominent role in the 1530s and 1540s during the ascendancy of her father-in-law, Thomas Cromwell, and the Protector Somerset. As the king’s sister-in-law and subsequently, aunt to the future Edward VI, her letters to Thomas Cromwell and the King before and during her second marriage reveal an intelligent and spirited woman. She served three of Henry VIII’s Queens — Anne Boleyn, Anne of Cleves, and Catherine Howard — and would outlive the old king, dying in the reign of his daughter, Elizabeth I.

By July 1530, Elizabeth Seymour had married, as his second wife, Sir Anthony Ughtred, (d.1534), the third son of Sir Robert Ughtred (d.1487) of Kexby, and Catherine, daughter of Sir William Eure of Stokesley, Yorkshire. (23) Sir Anthony Ughtred served both Henry VII and Henry VIII as a soldier and military administrator. In 1496 he took part in Edward Poynings’s campaign in Ulster. He was knighted at Eltham in 1512 and participated in Edmund Howard’s naval expedition to Brittany in August of the same year. Ughtred accompanied Henry VIII to France in July 1513 and was appointed marshal of Tournai after the city’s fall in September, remaining in the post until February 1515. He served as captain of Berwick from February 1515 until August 1532, when he replaced Sir Hugh Vaughan at the castle of Mont Orgueil as captain and governor of Jersey. (24)

The marriage produced two children: Henry, born either in late 1533 or early 1534, and Margery, probably shortly after her father’s death on 6 October 1534. Leaving her son, Henry in Jersey, Lady Ughtred returned to England to serve her mistress and cousin, Queen Anne Boleyn. (25)

Her late husband had known Thomas Cromwell since the mid-1520s and by the 1530s they were on friendly terms, (26) consequently it was to Thomas Cromwell that the well-connected young widow would turn in March 1537, rather than her sister Queen Jane, in the hope of securing one of a number of monasteries ‘if they fortune to go down.’ By now Cromwell’s wife, two of his daughters, and both of his sisters had died. (27) His only surviving children were a son, Gregory, born around 1520, and an illegitimate daughter, Jane, who had arrived by 1535. (28) The opportunity was not lost on Cromwell: he offered her instead a marriage with his son and heir, Gregory.

Lady Ughtred, then about nineteen or twenty, married Thomas Cromwell’s seventeen-year-old son, Gregory, on 3 August 1537 at the minister’s house at Mortlake. (29) The marriage would produce three sons: Henry, born in early 1538, followed by Edward, in 1539 and Thomas in 1540. There were also two daughters: Catherine, probably named after Queen Catherine Howard, born about 1541, and Frances, perhaps in memory of the late wife of Sir Richard Cromwell, in around 1544. (30)

3. Coat of Arms of Jane Seymour: Impaled by Henry VIII. Quarterly of six. 1. Or, on a pile, gules, between six fleurs de lys, azure three lions of England. (Augmentation) 2. Seymour: gules, two wings conjoined in lure, or. 3. Beauchamp of Hache: Vair. 4. Esturmy: Argent, three demi-lions rampant, gules 5. MacWilliams: Per bend, argent and gules, three roses, bend- wise, counterchanged. 6. Coker: Argent, on a bend, gules, three leopards’ heads, or.


The Identity of the Sitter

In early 1538 Thomas Cromwell became a grandfather for the first time. 31 The boy, named Henry, in honour of the King, was baptised on 1 March, probably at Hampton Court. The Lady Mary, who most likely stood godmother, gave generous gifts of money to the nurse and midwife as well as a cup for ‘my lady Outred Child’. (32) Sometime after the baptism the minister commissioned a portrait of his daughter-in-law by Hans Holbein, who had previously painted the minister and his son, to mark the birth of a Cromwell heir. (33)

Since the death of Queen Jane in late 1537, Holbein had been fully occupied painting potential brides for the king. By 18 March 1538, the artist had returned from the court of Mary of Hungary, the Regent of the Netherlands, where on 12 March, he had captured the likeness of Christina of Milan in exquisite detail, in only three hours. In the same year he was granted an extended leave of absence from court, for which he was paid in advance, and he would not return until the following year. Holbein was expected to leave for Europe in June, but his departure had been delayed until August. (34) It is doubtful, however, that the artist painted Cromwell’s daughter-in-law in 1538 since the young couple appears to have left for Lewes, in Sussex, shortly after the baptism. (35) The portrait was probably painted in the late autumn-winter of 1539–40, after the birth of the couple’s second son, Edward, and following Elizabeth’s appointment to the household of Queen Anne of Cleves. (36) The clothing worn by our sitter, and the absence of fur, suggests that the portrait was more likely painted in autumn.

4. Coat of Arms of Edward Seymour: Quarterly of six. 1. Or, on a pile, gules, between six fleurs de lys, azure three lions of England. (Augmentation granted by Henry VIII on his marriage to Jane Seymour. (37) 2. Seymour: gules, two wings conjoined in lure, or. 3. Beauchamp of Hache: Vair. 4. Esturmy: Argent, three demi-lions rampant, gules 5. MacWilliams: Per bend, argent and gules, three roses, bend-wise, counterchanged. 6. Coker: Argent, on a bend, gules, three leopards’ heads, or.

Thomas Cromwell had been granted an augmentation of honour to his arms following the marriage of his son, Gregory to the Queen’s sister, Elizabeth. The 2nd and 3rd quarters have a division of six, with fleurs de lys alternating with pelicans, and possess ‘the same unusual threefold structure, same metal and colours, fleurs de lys, and a feral creature’ as the coat of augmentation granted to Edward Seymour following his sister, Jane’s marriage to the king: or, on a pile gules between six fleurs de lys azure, three lions of England (fig. 4). (38) In 1538 Cromwell commissioned a portrait medal featuring his new arms (fig. 5). (39) Those same arms also appear in a portrait of the minister by an unknown artist, presumably painted during Holbein’s absence, and on the title page of the Great Bible that was published in early 1539. (40)

5. Arms of Thomas Cromwell: quarterly, 1st and 4th: azure, on a fess between three lions rampant or, a rose gules, barbed vert, between two Cornish choughs proper; 2nd and 3rd, per fess azure and or, a pale counter-changed, charged alternately with fleurs de lys of the second, and pelicans with wings elevated vulning themselves gules, being the coat of augmentation granted by Henry VIII on his son’s marriage to Elizabeth Seymour. (41)
6. Henry VIII angel, struck 1513–1526

Hans Holbein, who had come to England for the first time in 1526, hoping to ‘pick up some angels’ was by now ‘king’s painter’ and doing rather well (fig. 6). (42) It is tempting to speculate that when the artist glanced around his workshop, that a golden coin might have been the source of inspiration for the portrait of Thomas Cromwell’s daughter-in-law. All the elements are there; an angel, a pair of wings and the fleurs de lys of the arms of Henry VIII. The viewer’s eye is drawn, first to the lady’s face, then to the golden jewel, encircled by the golden vines on her sleeves. Here is a homophone in court French:

manches: ailes de vignes, d’or [sounds like] anges: ailes divines, d’or

The wings of golden vines, the angels in the pendant jewels, and the six fleurs de lys on her left sleeve, form an heraldic rebus (fig. 1). The angel, when viewed as a pair of golden wings, alludes to the ancient Seymour arms: gules, two wings conjoined in lure, or, and to the pelicans in the 2nd and 3rd quarters of Cromwell’s arms (figs 4, 5 and 7).


7. Arms of Seymour: gules, two wings conjoined in lure, or.
8. In the golden foliate scrollwork on the sleeve to the viewer’s right are six fleurs de lys: three below the elbow, and three above.
9. On the bodice of her gown, is a brooch from which hangs a circular pendant with a diamond at the centre and a biblical theme: Lot with his family, guided by an angel, fleeing from Sodom.

If we examine the pendant jewels in the portrait, we discover three angels, or pairs of wings, and in the foliate scrollwork on the sleeve to the viewer’s right there are six fleurs de lys: three above the elbow, and three below. The portrait thus contains heraldic clues to the lady’s identity and correspond to the placement of those on Cromwell’s medal — we can now identify the sitter as Elizabeth Seymour.

10. Another large circular jewel, probably also designed by Holbein, is attached to her girdle, depicting God the Father enthroned, flanked by angels.

Elizabeth Seymour came from a famously fertile family: Sir John Seymour fathered at least ten children, and most of his surviving children would have large families. Vines symbolise fertility, growth and renewal — the golden vines on her sleeves, and the flowering vines on her cuffs may hint at this particular lady’s fecundity. (43)

Who soars too near the sun, with golden wings, melts them; to ruin his own fortune brings.

In mid-1540, following the arrest of the Earl of Essex, his daughter-in-law reassured a paranoid king of her loyalty and that of her husband. An undated letter, probably written while Cromwell was imprisoned in the Tower of London, but before his execution, demonstrates a wisdom beyond her years. Having enjoyed an affectionate relationship with Thomas Cromwell since her marriage to his son in 1537, she was now compelled to use towards him ‘strong terms of reprobation’:

After the bounden duty of my most humble submission unto your excellent majesty, whereas it hath pleased the same, of your mere mercy and infinite goodness, notwithstanding the heinous trespasses and most grievous offences of my father-in-law, yet so graciously to extend your benign pity towards my poor husband and me, as the extreme indigence and poverty wherewith my said father-in-law’s most detestable offences hath oppressed us, is thereby right much holpen and relieved … Most humbly beseeching your majesty in the mean season mercifully to accept this my most obedient suit, and to extend your accustomed pity and gracious goodness towards my said poor husband and me, who never hath, nor, God willing, never shall offend your majesty, but continually pray for the prosperous estate of the same long time to remain and continue. (44)

The king was satisfied, and suspicion cast aside. Elizabeth was appointed to the household of Queen Catherine Howard, and on 18 December, five months after his father’s execution, Gregory Cromwell was raised to the peerage as Baron Cromwell. (45) The Cromwells and their extended family remained in favour with King Henry, participating in court ceremonial, while continuing to receive grants of property. Gregory Lord Cromwell participated in the funeral of King Henry in early 1547, and was made a Knight of the Bath at his nephew, Edward VI’s coronation in February 1547. The Seymours, however, would not endear themselves to their royal relations. Thomas Lord Seymour of Sudeley and the Protector Somerset would not survive the power struggles of the reign of Edward VI. After the death of Gregory Lord Cromwell in July 1551, his widow married, in 1554, John Paulet, Lord St John, eldest son and heir of William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester. Her third husband and his father had been signatories, 21 June, of the letters patent, 16 June 1553, settling the Crown on Lady Jane Grey, later transferring their allegiance to Mary I. (46) In 1560 Elizabeth’s nephew, Edward, Earl of Hertford, would secretly marry Lady Catherine Grey, earning the displeasure of Elizabeth I. (47) Elizabeth died 19 March and was buried 5 April, 1568 in St Mary’s Church, Basing in Hampshire. (48)

Her son, Henry Cromwell (1538–1592), who had married Mary Paulet by 1560, succeeded his father as 2nd Baron Cromwell. Henry’s grandson, Thomas, 4th Baron Cromwell, later 1st Viscount Lecale, was created Earl of Ardglass in the Irish peerage on 15 April 1645. The Barony of Cromwell was held by the 1st Viscount Lecale from 22 November 1624 and by the Earls of Ardglass from 15 April 1645 until 26 November 1687, when, on the death of the last male heir, Vere Essex Cromwell, 4th Earl of Ardglass and 7th Baron Cromwell, both titles became extinct. (49)

11. Catherine Tollemache, 1597, Robert Peake the Elder

Lionel and Catherine Tollemache

Catherine Tollemache (d. 1621), daughter to Henry Lord Cromwell and Mary Paulet, married Lionel Tollemache (1562–1612), 1st Bt in 1581 (fig. 11). (50) Catherine’s granddaughter, Jane Tollemache (d. 1666), daughter of Lionel Tollemache 2nd Bt. and Elizabeth Stanhope, married her cousin, Thomas Cholmondeley (1627–1702) of Vale Royal by 1650. (51) Her husband’s grandmother was Dorothy Wentworth, daughter of Sir Richard Wentworth (d. 1528) of Nettlestead, sister of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Baron Wentworth, and first cousin of Elizabeth Seymour. (52) Jane and Thomas Cholmondeley would have five sons, and seven daughters, however all the sons predeceased their father, and he was succeeded by Charles Cholmondeley (1685–1756), third son of his second marriage to Anne St. John. (53) In the early nineteenth century his grandson Charles Cholmondeley (1770–1846) acquired Overleigh Hall in Chester together with its substantial portrait collection.

Overleigh Hall, Chester

Matthew Ellis, a gentleman of the bodyguard to Henry VIII, purchased the Overleigh estate from the Crown in 1545. It continued in this family for nearly a century, when it was conveyed by the marriage of Juliana, daughter of Matthew Ellis, to Thomas Cowper (d. 1620), of Chester. The timber-framed manor house and chapel of the Ellis family were destroyed in the siege of Chester, and in around 1662 a new brick house was built by Thomas Cowper (d. 1695), who had acquired the estate partly through descent and partly through purchase (fig. 12). (54)

12. Overleigh Hall before it was demolished in the 1830s. Sketch copied from a small water colour drawing in the possession of Mr. T. Topham.

Overleigh Hall was a red brick building, the walls of its chief rooms being richly panelled in oak. It contained a good library, and a great number of old portraits, particularly some valuable ones of the Cromwell family, as mentioned in an inventory in the Library. A visitor to Overleigh Hall in the summer of 1793 provided a list: (55)

    •   Sir Oliver Cromwell, uncle and godfather to the Protector, aet. 84, 1646
    •   Lady Elizabeth Cromwell, first wife of Sir Oliver, and daughter of Sir Thomas Bromley
    •   Sir Thomas Bromley, Lord Chancellor to Elizabeth I
    •   Colonel Henry Cromwell, aet. 60, 1646, eldest son of Sir Oliver
    •   Colonel John Cromwell, second son of Sir Oliver
    •   William Cromwell, fourth son of Sir Oliver
    •   Major John Hettley, painted in a large wig
    •   Sir Thomas and Lady Hettley (whose son, William, married Sir Oliver’s         granddaughter, Carina Cromwell)
    •   Dr. Sparks, M.D.
    •   Mr. Manley, said to have been an artist

In the later seventeenth and eighteenth-century Overleigh Hall remained the home of the Cowpers, a prominent Chester family that descended from Thomas, a younger son of the Cowpers of Strode, in Sussex, who was one of the bed-chamber by August 1498. In the same year, he married Isabella, daughter and heiress of Richard Goodman, then Mayor of the City. Their descendants included aldermen, a city recorder, and a celebrated local antiquarian, Dr. William Cowper (d. 1767). The male line of the Cowpers ceased in 1788 with the death of Thomas Cowper, Recorder of Chester, and on the death of his widow, Harriet in 1811, Overleigh Hall and its portrait collection passed into the Cholmondeley family of Vale Royal. (56) Thomas Cowper’s sister and co-heir, Dorothy (1746–1786) had married, in 1764, Thomas Cholmondeley (1726–1779), third son and heir of Charles Cholmondeley (1685–1756) and Essex Pitt. Her husband’s grandfather, Thomas Cholmondeley (1627–1702) married, by 1650, as his first wife, Jane Tollemache (d. 1666), daughter of Lionel Tollemache 2nd Bt. and Elizabeth Stanhope. (57) Jane was Elizabeth Seymour’s great-great-granddaughter. The NPG portrait dates from the late seventeenth century, which corresponds to the marriage of Jane Tollemache and Thomas Cholmondeley in around 1650 to the latter’s death in 1702.

In 1811 the Overleigh estate was inherited by Charles Cholmondeley (1770–1846), of Vale Royal, third son of Thomas Cholmondeley and Dorothy Cowper and let to a tenant. The portrait collection was relocated, in 1816, to Condover Hall in Shropshire, then owned by a nephew, Edward William Smythe Pemberton Owen (d. 1863) (fig. 13). In 1821, along with 135 acres of land, it was bought by Robert Grosvenor, 1st Marquess of Westminster, and demolished in 1830 to allow construction of a new entrance to the Eaton Hall estate. (58)

Condover Hall, Shropshire

Condover Hall was built by Thomas Owen, judge of the Common Pleas (d. 1598). Thomas Owen was succeeded by his son, Roger (d. 1617), who died without an heir, and the estate passed to his brother, William and down the male line, until the death of Edward Owen in 1728. The estate descended to Edward’s sister, Letitia Owen, then to her granddaughter Anna Maria, who married Nicholas Smythe of Nibley, Gloucester. Their son and heir, Nicholas Owen Smythe, assumed in 1790 by royal license the additional surname and arms of Owen. He died without issue in 1804 and the estate devised to his nephew, Edward William Smythe Pemberton Owen (d. 1863), then to Edward’s cousin, Thomas Cholmondeley. In March, 1863 Thomas Cholmondeley inherited Condover Hall and the estate adjacent, and took the name of Owen as a condition of the inheritance. (59)

Thomas Cholmondeley (1823–1864) was the eldest son of the Rev. Charles Cowper Cholmondeley (1795–1831), rector of Overleigh, Cheshire, and Mary, sister to Reginald Heber, the celebrated bishop of Calcutta. His grandparents were Charles Cholmondeley (1770–1846) and Caroline-Elizabeth, the daughter of Nicholas Smythe, and sister and co-heir of Nicholas Owen Smythe Owen. Thomas was brought up at Hodnet, in Shropshire, where his father, a cousin of Lord Delamere, had succeeded his brother-in-law as rector, on the departure of Bishop Heber for India, in 1823.

13. Condover Hall, Shropshire, 1825

In 1864 he married Victoria Cotes, daughter of John and Lady Louisa Cotes, a godchild of Queen Victoria, and went to Italy for his wedding tour. In Florence he was ‘seized with a malignant fever’, 10 April, 1864, and died there 20 April. He was succeeded by his younger brother, Reginald Cholmondeley (1826–1896), an accomplished painter and amateur sculptor. Following Reginald’s death in 1896, Condover and its portrait collection were sold by his younger brother, the Rev. Richard Hugh Cholmondeley, in 1897. (60) A seventeenth-century copy of the Toledo portrait was sold in the Cholmondeley sale (lot 8), Christie’s 6 March 1897 as ‘a Lady in a black dress’. It was purchased from Colnaghi by the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1898, as Catherine Howard on the identification of Lionel Cust. (61)

An earlier copy of the portrait dating from the mid-sixteenth century came from Trentham Hall in Staffordshire, seat of the Dukes of Sutherland, and while in their possession it was called ‘Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk’ (fig. 14). The portrait was sold as from their collection and as formerly at Trentham Hall, at Christie’s 27 October 1961 (lot 45) ‘Mary, Duchess of Suffolk’ and again 25 November 1966 (lot 2) as German school ‘unknown’. It is now exhibited at Hever Castle as ‘Portrait of a Lady, thought to be Catherine Howard’. (62)

Trentham Hall, Staffordshire

In 1538 Trentham priory was acquired by Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, who sold it within a year to Sir Thomas Pope. By 1540 Trentham was in the possession of James Leveson (c.1500-1547), a wealthy wool merchant from Wolverhampton. (63) The estate of Trentham came into the possession of the Duke of Sutherland through the marriage of Sir Thomas Gower (1605–1672), 2nd Bt. and his second wife, Frances, daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Leveson (1555–1615) of Lilleshall, Staffordshire and Haling, Kent. His second son, Sir William Gower (1636–1691) married, in 1669, Jane Granville (d. 1696), daughter of John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath (d. 1696), and sister of Grace Carteret, 1st Countess Granville. Sir William adopted the surname Leveson-Gower when he inherited the Trentham and Lilleshall estates of his maternal great-uncle, Sir Richard Leveson (1598–1661). He succeeded his nephew, Thomas Gower, as 4th Bt. in 1689. (64)

14. Trentham Hall, Staffordshire, 1880

Sir William Leveson-Gower’s nephew was John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, whose daughter Grace, married Lionel Tollemache, 4th Earl of Dysart, a descendant of Catherine Tollemache née Cromwell. Their son, Lionel Tollemache (1734–1799), 5th Earl of Dysart married Charlotte Walpole, niece of Horace Walpole. (65) Sir William’s great-grandson, Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford KG (1721–1803), married Lady Louisa Egerton, daughter of Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater. (66) Their son, George Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford, 1st Duke of Sutherland KG (1758–1833), married Elizabeth Sutherland, 19th Countess of Sutherland. (67)

15. Jane Powlett, Countess of Bridgewater, [circle of] Sir Peter Lely, c.1670

The 1st Duke of Sutherland’s great-grandmother was Jane Powlett, Countess of Bridgewater, whose father the 1st Duke of Bolton was a direct descendant of John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester, Elizabeth Seymour’s third husband, whose daughter, Mary married Henry Lord Cromwell. If the portrait does in fact date from the mid-sixteenth century, then it is entirely possible that it was commissioned by John Paulet, who married Elizabeth Seymour, as his second wife, in 1554. (68)

16. Jane, Marchioness of Winchester, Gilbert Jackson, 1632

Jane Powlett’s grandmother, Jane Savage, was the wife of John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester, and daughter of Thomas Savage, 1st Viscount Savage of Rocksavage and Elizabeth Darcy suo jure Countess Rivers (fig. 16). Jane’s brother, Thomas Savage, married Bridget, widow of Sir Edward Somerset, and daughter of William Whitmore by Margaret Beeston. Bridget was the great-granddaughter of Jane Hough née Cromwell, Thomas Cromwell’s daughter. (69)

The claim that there is no evidence to suggest that the ‘Trentham picture shared a Cromwell provenance with either the original or the NPG version’ does not stand scrutiny. It has been established that the descendants of Lionel and Catherine Tollemache, the Earls of Dysart, were related by ties of blood or marriage to the owners of the Toledo portrait, as well as the NPG and Hever copies.



Born in Sydney, Australia, Teri Fitzgerald is a retired systems analyst with a passion for history. Well acquainted with the Tudor court from an early age, Teri is presently researching the work of Hans Holbein and the Cromwell family. In 2016 her article on Gregory Cromwell, co-written with Diarmaid MacCulloch, was published in The Journal of Ecclesiastical History.

Teri Fitzgerald and DIARMAID MacCulloch (2016). Gregory Cromwell: Two Portrait Miniatures by Hans Holbein the Younger. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 67, pp 587-601 

QAB Guest Article: The Rediscovery of Elizabeth Seymour

QAB Interview with Teri Fitzgerald



Abbreviations used in the notes

LP –Brewer, J. S., et al. (Eds) (1862-1932). Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic of the Reign of Henry VIII, 1509-47. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Complete Baronetage – C[okayne], G. E. (Ed.). (1900). Complete baronetage. Exeter: William Pollard.

Complete Peerage – C[okayne], G. E., & Gibbs, V. (Eds.). (1910-59). The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. London: St. Catherine Press.

CPR: Elizabeth – Great Britain. Public Record Office. (1939). Calendar of the patent rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Elizabeth [I]. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

ODNB – Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Matthew, H. C. G. & Harrison, B. (Eds). (Online edn). Oxford 2004.

SC – The Sutherland Collection (online) / Staffordshire & Stoke-on-Trent Archive Service

TNA – The National Archives, Kew

1 ‘Portrait of a Lady, probably a Member of the Cromwell Family’, Toledo Museum of Art, ref. no. 1926.570; ‘Portrait of a Lady, thought to be Catherine Howard’, Hans Holbein the Younger, follower of, 16th century, Hever Castle, Kent; ‘Unknown woman, formerly known as Catherine Howard’, after Hans Holbein the Younger, late 17th century’, National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG 1119; Strong, R. (1969). Tudor and Jacobean Portraits. 2: Plates. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office., plates 76-78; Rowlands, J. (1985). Holbein: the paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (complete edn). Oxford: Phaidon, p. 146, cat. 69, pl. 109.

2 Nirdlinger, V. (1933, May). ‘Four paintings in the exhibition at Chicago’. Parnassus, 5(4), 8-11 at p. 9.

3 British Museum number SL,5308.25. Medallion of Lot with his family, guided by an angel, fleeing from Sodom, one of ten designs for medallions, from the ‘Jewellery Book’.

4 B tschmann, O., and Griener, P. (2014). Hans Holbein (second edn). London: Reaktion Books, pp. 245-6, fig. 244.

5 Chamberlain, A. B. (1913). Hans Holbein the Younger. London: George Allen, 2, pp. 195-6; see also Ganz, P. (1956). The paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (enlarged edn). London: Phaidon, p. 254, cat. 118, pl. 157.

6 Royal Collection, ‘Portrait of a Lady, perhaps Katherine Howard’, RCIN 422293; another version of the miniature, ‘Katherine Howard’, is in the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. The drawing is in the Royal Collection, ‘An unidentified woman’, RCIN 912218.

7 The sitter was formerly thought, on no real evidence, to have been Queen Catherine Howard, see Cust, L. (1910, July). ‘A portrait of Queen Catherine Howard, by Hans Holbein the Younger’. The Burlington Magazine, 17(88), pp. 192-5, 199, and accepted as such until the identification was questioned by Roy Strong, following the lead of C. K. Adams, see Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.). ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’. The Genealogists’ Magazine, 14(11), pp. 382-8 at pp. 386-7, who has very plausibly argued in favour of the sitter being a member of the Cromwell family. See Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’. The Burlington Magazine, 109(770), 276-281 at pp. 278, 281.

8 The Toledo portrait appears in Waylen’s list of 1891 as Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII. See Waylen, J. (1891). The house of Cromwell and the story of Dunkirk: a genealogical history of the descendants of the Protector, with anecdotes and letters. London: Elliot Stock, p. 347.

9 Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.), ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’, pp. 382-388 at p. 386.

10 Strong, R. (1969). Tudor and Jacobean Portraits. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1, p. 43.

11 Ibid.; Starkey, D. (2007). Lost faces: identity and discovery in Tudor royal portraiture. B. Grosvenor, (ed.) London: Philip Mould Ltd., pp. 70-75, 109-124: The inventory is BL Stowe MS 599, ff. 55-68.

12 Russell, G. (2017). Young and damned and fair: the life and tragedy of Catherine Howard at the court of Henry VIII. London: William Collins. ‘None of the girls who served alongside her was born before 1521’: see p. 18 and pp. 386-7; Wilkinson, J. (2016). Katherine Howard: the tragic story of Henry VIII’s fifth queen. London: John Murray, p. 61; Wilkinson, J. (2016, Dec. 15). ‘How old was Katherine Howard?’ Retrieved May 14, 2018, fromhttp://dr-

13 Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’, pp. 276-281; Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.), ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’, pp. 382-8 at pp. 386-7.

14 Dolman, B. (2013). ‘Wishful thinking: reading the portraits of Henry VIII’s queens’. In T. Betteridge, & S. Lipscomb (Eds.). Henry VIII and the court: art, politics and performance, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 115-129 at pp. 124-6; Weir, A. (2016). The lost Tudor princess: a life of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox. London: Vintage, pp. 401: ‘the costume does seem rather lavish for the daughter of a knight and wife of a gentleman’.

15 Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’, pp. 276-281.

16 Hofmann, T. M. (1982). ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard (by 1512-44), of London; Stepney, Mdx. and Hinchingbroke, Hunts.’ S. T. Bindoff, (ed.) The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558. British History Online. Retrieved May 14, 2018, from 1512-44#footnote5_8sdujla

17 Ibid.; Charles, N., and Camden, W. (1849). The visitation of the county of Huntingdon, under the authority of William Camden, Clarenceux king of arms, by his deputy, Nicholas Charles, Lancaster herald, A.D. MDCXIII. H. Ellis, (ed.) London: Printed for the Camden Society, pp. 79-80, where Frances Murfyn’s father is named Thomas then John, and given a knighthood. From her father’s will we find that Frances was the daughter of Thomas Murfyn and his second wife, Elizabeth Donne, who married in 1519. See Drake, W. R. (1873). Fasciculus Mervinensis, being notes historical, genealogical, and heraldic of the family of Mervyn. London, appendix i, pp. vi-viii. For Thomas Murfyn’s ‘erroneous’ knighthood, see Beaven, A. B. (1908). The aldermen of the city of London, temp. Henry III.-1908. London: The Corporation of the city of London, i, p. 35, and ibid., ii, p. 22, n. 30.

18 Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’. 17

19 Leithead, H. (2004-09-23). ‘Cromwell, Thomas, earl of Essex (b. in or before 1485, d. 1540)’, ODNB.

20 Sir Richard was a recipient of gifts of clothing from the King a week before his uncle’s execution. See LP xv, 900: ‘The articles given are gowns and jackets of various materials and colours.’

21 In June, 1542, Sir Richard Cromwell alias Williams and Frances, his wife, granted the manors of Great Raveley and Moynes to John Sewster. See Turner, G. J. (ed.). (1913). A calendar of the feet of fines relating to the county of Huntingdon, levied in the King’s Court from the fifth year of Richard I. to the end of the reign of Elizabeth, 1194-1603. Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Octavo publications, 37, pp. 131-2; see also ‘Parishes: Great Raveley’. (1932). In W. Page, G. Proby, & S. I. Ladds (eds), A history of the county of Huntingdon, 2, pp. 198-201, fn. 52. British History Online. Retrieved Mar. 12, 2015, from http://www.british- ; Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’.

22 Brown, W. (ed.). (2013). Yorkshire deeds. Cambridge University Press, 2, pp. 162-3; Davids, R. L. (1982). ‘Seymour, Sir John (1473/74-1536), of Wolf Hall, Wilts.’. In S. T. Bindoff (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from 1558/member/seymour-sir-john-147374-1536; Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell: two portrait miniatures by Hans Holbein the Younger’. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 67(3), pp. 587-601. Sir John Seymour fathered ten children, six of whom survived: Edward, Henry, Thomas, Jane, Elizabeth, and Dorothy. Elizabeth was probably married in 1530, and aged fifteen or sixteen when her son, Henry Ughtred was born in 1533/4. Her younger sister, Dorothy Seymour (c.1519-c.1553), married Sir Clement Smith (c.1515-1552) in the early 1530s. Their eldest son and heir, John Smith, was born c. 1534 and died at the end of August 1607, aged seventy-three. See Gause, A. (2008, January 03). ‘Smythe [Smith], Sir John (1533/4–1607)’, ODNB.

23 Brown, W. (ed.). (2013). Yorkshire deeds, 2, pp. 162-3; ‘Yorkshire Fines: 1511-15’. In F. Collins (ed.). (1887). Feet of Fines of the Tudor Period [Yorks]. 1: 1486-1571, pp. 24-30. Leeds: Yorkshire Archeological Society. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from; MacMahon, L. (2004-09- 23). ‘Ughtred, Sir Anthony (d. 1534)’, ODNB.

24 Ibid.; In January 1532, perhaps to aid in securing the governorship of Jersey for her husband, Lady Ughtred presented the king with a New Year’s gift: ‘a fine shirt with a high collar’. See LP v, 686.

25 For Henry Ughtred, who was one year old at the time of his father’s death on 6 October 1534, see Syvret, G. S., & de Carteret, S. (1832). Chroniques des Iles de Jersey, Guernesey, Auregny et Serk. Guernsey: T. J. Mauger, pp. 60-61; see also Fuidge, N. M. (1981). ‘Ughtred, Henry (by 1534-aft. Oct. 1598), of Southampton and Ireland’. In P. W. Hasler (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from henry-1534-1598. For Margery Ughtred, see Flower, W. (1881). The Visitation of Yorkshire in the years 1563 and 1564, made by William Flower, Esquire, Norroy King of Arms. (Harleian Society xvi). C. B. Norcliffe, (ed.) London: [Harleian Society], p. 166.

26 Thornton, T. (2012). The Channel Islands, 1370-1640: between England and Normandy. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, p. 71; Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601 at p. 593.

27 Merriman, R. B. (1902). Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell. Oxford: Clarendon Press, i, p. 58; LP vi / 1182 and 1183.

28 For Gregory Cromwell, see Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587- 601. Jane Cromwell (d. 1580) married William Hough of Leighton, Cheshire by 1550/1. For Jane and William Hough, see ibid., p. 591. The couple’s daughter and sole heir, Alice was 34 at the time of her father’s death in 1585. See Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882). The history of the County Palatine and city of Chester … (second edn). London: George Routledge and Sons, ii. p. 552.

29 LP xiv / ii, 782, p. 330: ‘Mr Gregory, by Mr Richard [Cromwell], “the same day he was married at Mortelacke” 50l.’.

30 Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601 at pp. 593-4.

31 Elizabeth’s father-in-law spared no expense in providing for her comfort while she awaited the birth of his first grandchild. See LP xiv / ii, 782 (p. 335): ‘lady Owtred, by Mr. Richard, for things “she needed at her lying down”, 44l. 15s.’.

32 I am most grateful to Diarmaid MacCulloch for the dating and probable location of the baptism. See MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life. London: Allen Lane, pp. 440-1. For a payment in Cromwell’s accounts for 1 March to ‘Mr. Richard’s nurse and midwife, by Mr. Gregory, at the christening’, see LP xiv / no. 2, 782 (p. 334). For Cromwell’s location, see Merriman, R. B. (1902), Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell, ii, pp. 122-5 (LP xiii / i, 387). For Princess Mary, see Madden, F. (1831). Privy purse expenses of the Princess Mary, daughter of King Henry the Eighth, afterwards Queen Mary. London: William Pickering, pp. 66-7, 69.

33 Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601.

34 Wilson, D. (2006). Hans Holbein: portrait of an unknown man (revised edn). London: Pimlico, pp. 250-1.

35 LP xiii / i, 549; Ellis, H. (ed.). (1846). Original letters, illustrative of English history … (third series), iii, pp. 192-4. See also Cooper, C. (2006). A village in Sussex: the history of Kingston- near-Lewes. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 134-5.

36 LP xiv / ii, 12; LP xiv / ii, 664; For the Queen’s household, see: LP xv, 21.

37 Burke, B. (1884). The general armory of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. London: Harrison, p. 914; Boutell, C. (1863). A manual of heraldry, historical and popular. London: Winsor and Newton, p. 243.

38 For a detailed discussion of Cromwell’s arms, see MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life, pp. 427-8, plates 8 and 9.

39 Hawkins, E., Franks, A., & Grueber, H. (1885). Medallic illustrations of the history of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of George II. London: British Museum, i, pp. 39-41; British Museum, M.6792.

40 ‘Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (c. 1485-1540), half-length, in a black coat with fur trim, his coats- of-arms upper-left’, English School, circa late-1530s. Sold at Christie’s ‘Old Master and British Pictures’ (Day Sale), 6 July 2007, lot 112. Two copies of the Great Bible survive, one at St John’s College, Cambridge, and another at the National Library of Wales. See Carley, J. P. (2004). The books of King Henry VIII and his wives. London: The British Library, p. 88 and pl. 81.

41 Merriman, R. B. (1902), Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell, ii, p. 284; College of Arms, MS 2 G.4, f.35v.

42  Chamberlain, Hans Holbein the Younger, 1, p. 255: In a letter of introduction written for Holbein by Erasmus to his friend Petrus Ægidius (Pieter Gilles) in Antwerp, ‘The arts are freezing in this part of the world, and he is on his way to England to pick up some angels there (petit Angliam ut corrodat aliquot Angelatos).’ The angel was an English gold coin patterned after the French angelot or ange. The name derived from its representation of the archangel Michael slaying a dragon.

43  Varner, G. R. (2006). Strangely wrought creatures of Life and death., pp. 57-8: ‘Vines represent fertility, the Tree of Life and life itself.’

44  Wood, M. A. E. (ed.). (1846). Letters of royal and illustrious ladies of Great Britain. London: Henry Colburn, iii, pp. 159-60.

45  LP xvi, 1489; Complete Peerage, iii, p. 557 (LP xvi, 379-34).

46  Complete Peerage, xii / ii, pp. 761, 763.

47  Complete Peerage, vi, pp. 505-6.

48  Complete Peerage, xii / ii, p. 764, where her date of death is [incorrectly] given as 1563. In fact, she was still living in 1564. See CPR: Elizabeth, 3, p. 141. For her death and burial in 1568, see College of Arms (1829). Catalogue of the Arundel Manuscripts in the Library of the College of Arms. [London: S. and R. Bentley], p. 63; see also CPR: Elizabeth, 4, p. 184.

49  Complete Peerage, iii, pp. 558-9.

50  Copinger, W. A. (1908). The Manors of Suffolk: notes on their history and devolution. Manchester:Taylor, Garnett, Evans & Co., 2, pp. 309-10.

51  Thomas Cholmondeley’s uncle, Robert Cholmondeley, married her mother’s sister, CatherineStanhope. See Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, ii, p. 157.

52  Copinger, W. A. The Manors of Suffolk, 2, p. 308; Rutton, W. L. (1891). Three branches of the family of Wentworth. I. Wentworth of Nettlestead, Suffolk; II. Wentworth of Gosfield, Essex; III. Wentworth of Lillingstone Lovell, Oxfordshire. London: [Mitchell and Hughes], pp. 138- 9; Wentworth, J. (1878). The Wentworth genealogy, English and American. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, i, pp. 39-40.

53  Hampson, G., & Henning, B. D. (1983). ‘Cholmondeley, Thomas (1627-1702), of Vale Royal, Cheshire’. In B. D. Henning (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1660- 1690. British History Online. Retrieved June 02, 2018, from 1627-1702 ; Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, ii, pp. 157- 8; see also Thornton, T. (2006). Prophesy, politics and the people in early modern England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, pp. 116, 128-9, n. 137.

54  Journal of the Architectural, Archæological, and Historic Society, for the County, City, and Neighbourhood of Chester, i (Jun. 1849-Dec. 1855), pp. 385-6.

55  Dugdale, J. (1819). The new British traveller, or, modern panorama of England and Wales. London: J. Robins and Co., i, pp. 321-2; The Gentleman’s Magazine, (April 1794), 64(6), p. 328; Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882). The history of the County Palatine, i, p. 374.

56  Ibid, pp. 375-6, and ibid, ii, pp. 157-8.

57  Thornton, T. (2006). Prophesy, politics and the people in early modern England, pp. 116, n. 79, 128-9 n. 137.

58 Barrow, J. S., & Herson, J. D., et al. (2005). ‘Manors and estates in and near the city’. In A. T. Thacker, & C. P. Lewis (eds), A history of the county of Chester, 5(2): the City of Chester: culture, buildings, institutions. London: Victoria County History, pp. 322-330; Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, i, pp. 374-6.

59 Gaydon, A. T. (ed.). (1968). A history of Shropshire, 8. Published for the Institute of Historical Research by the Oxford University Press, pp. 38-9; Leach, F., (ed.). (1891). The county seats of Shropshire. Shrewsbury: Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal Office, pp. 49-53.

60 Thoreau, H. D. (2014). The writings of Henry David Thoreau. F. B. Sanborn, (ed.) (enlarged edn), VI: Familiar letters. Createspace, p. 236, fn 102; Gaydon, A history of Shropshire, 8, pp. 38-9.

61 Strong, R. (1995), The Tudor and Stuart monarchy, 1, p. 81; Christie, Manson & Woods. (1897); Catalogue of the collection of pictures by old masters of the late Reginald Cholmondeley, Esq. removed from Condover Hall. London: Christie, Manson & Woods. Retrieved May 18, 2018, from

62 Starkey, D. (2007), Lost faces, p. 74: ‘Dendochronological analysis proves conclusively that the panel used came from the mid sixteenth century.’; Strong, R. (1995), The Tudor and Stuart monarchy, 1, p. 81.

63 LP xiii / i, p. 587; LP xiii / ii, 1182-18; LP xiii / ii, 1182-20; TNA, E 328/86 (LP xv, 611-5); SC, s.v.; Wisker, R. (Autumn 1996). ‘The first Trentham Hall’. Staffordshire History, 24, pp. 6-14.

64 Complete Baronetage, i, p. 147; Complete Peerage, vi, p. 95; Granville, R. (1895). The history of the Granville family. Exeter: William Pollard, p. 417.

65 Ibid., pp. 417-8; Complete Peerage, iv, pp. 564-5.

66 Complete Peerage, xii / i, pp. 199-200.

67 Complete Peerage, xii / i, 563-4. Elizabeth Sutherland’s ancestor, John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland, married as his second wife, Catherine, widow of Lord Doune, eldest daughter of Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Bt. and Elizabeth Murray, suo jure Countess of Dysart. See ibid. pp. 559-60.

68 Complete Peerage, iii, p. 558; ibid, xii / ii, pp. 762-3, 769.

69 Ibid., pp. 767-8; Burke, J., & Burke, J. B. (1844). A genealogical and heraldic history of the extinct and dormant baronetcies of England, Ireland, and Scotland (second edn). London: John Russell Smith, p. 470; Boothman, L., Parker, R. H., & Dymond, D. (eds). (2006). Savage fortune: an aristocratic family in the early seventeenth century. (Suffolk Record Society, XLIX). Woodbridge: Boydell Press, pp. xxxv-xxxvii, 188-9; Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, ii, p. 552.

Beth von Staats

is the owner and administrator of Blogger of "The Tudor Thomases", Beth specializes in writing magazine articles, online historical articles, short stories, and flash fiction.

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