“The English Monarchy and Interesting Deaths”, by Claire Ridgway

November 21, 2016 in Guest Writers, News by Claire Ridgway

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The English Monarchy and Interesting Deaths

Claire Ridgway

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Thank you to Beth and the QAB community for hosting me today on Day 1 of my virtual book tour for Illustrated Kings and Queens of England. I’m so excited to be here!

“A King should die standing,” are said to be the final words of King Louis XVIII of France in 1824, a man who tried to carry on with his royal duties right up to the end even though he was suffering from extensive gangrene. When I was researching the lives of the English monarchy for Illustrated Kings and Queens of England, I found it interesting to read about the deaths of these monarchs. Some had died fighting for their crown, others had been murdered, some had been executed, and others had died as a result of nasty accidents, and still others had died peacefully in their beds – they were the lucky ones!

Today, I’m going to share with you some of the interesting fates of our English monarchs.

Death on the Battlefield

In an age of chivalry, everyone wanted to be a warrior king. Henry VIII certainly wanted to excel on the battlefield like Henry V and Edward I, but for some monarchs, the battlefield brought their lives and reign to a violent end.

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King Harold II

King Harold II

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In 1066, following his victory at the Battle of Stamford Bridge against his brother, Tostig, Earl of Northumbria, and Harald Hardrada of Norway, King Harold II of England (born c.1022) went to battle against William, Duke of Normandy, and his invading forces. The two armies met at Senlac Hill, near Hastings, on 14 October 1066, in a battle known as the Battle of Hastings. This time, fate was not on Harold’s side, and he was defeated and killed. An image on the famous Bayeux Tapestry has led to the story that Harold was killed by an arrow in the eye, but it is not known whether the man depicted is actually Harold.

Another king who was killed in battle by an invading force was King Richard III (born 1452). On 22 August 1485, Richard and his forces met the army of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, near Market Bosworth in Leicestershire at the Battle of Bosworth. Henry Tudor had returned from exile in Brittany to claim the English crown. Richard was killed during the battle, and Henry was crowned King Henry VII later that day when Richard’s crown was recovered from the battlefield.

On 6 April 1199, King Richard I (born 1157) died from gangrene in a wound sustained from a crossbow bolt to the shoulder, while laying siege to the castle of Châlus, the home of Viscount Aimar V of Limoges who had risen in rebellion. And the famous warrior king, Henry V (1387-1422), died as a result of his warring, succumbing to camp fever (typhus) following the capture of Mieux in summer 1422.

Murder

Then there are the monarchs who were the victims of foul play, or whose deaths are shrouded in mystery. According to the chronicles, King Edmund I (born 921) was attacked and murdered by a robber named Leofa on 26 May 946 while he was attending mass at Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire. In 878, King Edward the Martyr (born c. 962) was murdered at Corfe, while on his way to visit his younger half-brother, Aethelred, at Corfe Castle. It is not known exactly what happened, but theories include that he was murdered by a supporter of Aethelred, that his murder was plotted by Aethelred, that he was murdered by Aelfhere, ealdorman of Mercia, and that his stepmother, Aelfthryth, plotted his death.

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King Edward V

King Edward V

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Kings whose deaths are shrouded in mystery include Harthacnut (born c.1018) who most believe died from a stroke or heart attack but the Morkinskinna, a 13th century Old Norse saga, claims that he was poisoned after drinking from a horn meant for Magnus I of Norway, who was visiting his court. Then there’s King Edward V who has gone down in history as one of the Princes in the Tower, along with his brother Prince Richard. The boys disappeared in the reign of Richard III, and their fate is unknown, although there are many theories. And then, of course, there’s Edward II (born 1284) who died at Berkeley Castle on 21 September 1327. It is not known how he died, but many believe him to have been murdered. According to one chronicle, he was killed by the insertion of a red-hot poker in his nether regions, but this is now thought to be nothing more than propaganda. His death remains a mystery. The fate of Richard II (born 1367) is also unknown. He died on 14 February 1400 while he was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle, but it is unclear whether his death was murder. It’s the same with Henry VI (born 1421) who died while imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1471. Although it was claimed that he died of melancholy, following his son’s death, it is now believed that he was stabbed to death on the orders of Edward IV.

Executions

Two English monarchs met their end on the scaffold, being beheaded for high treason. Lady Jane Grey, who has gone down in history as “The Nine Day Queen”, was executed on 12 February 1554 following her alleged usurpation of the throne and her father’s involvement in Wyatt’s Rebellion. Charles I (born 1600) was executed on 30 January 1649 following the defeat of the royalists by the Parliamentarians and his refusal to accept the idea of a constitutional monarchy.

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King William II

King William II

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Accidents

Anyone would think that it’s unlucky to be a “King William” seeing as Kings William I, II and III all died as the result of an accident. William I (born c. 1028) died following a fall from his horse while riding into battle at Mantes, William II (born c. 1056) was accidentally shot with an arrow by one of his own men while hunting in the New Forest, and William III (born 1650) died of pneumonia, following a fall from his horse caused by it stumbling into a molehill. Nasty!

Awful illnesses

If regicide, warfare or accidents didn’t finish you off, then illness did, with some illnesses being worse than others. King Eadred (born c. 923) died in 955 after suffering from digestive problems and problems swallowing food, Henry I (born c. 1068) died in 1135 after eating a dish of lampreys, and King John (born 1167) died in 1216 after eating a meal of peaches and ale.

It is not clear what killed Edward VI (born 1537), the boy-king and son of Henry VIII. He’d suffered from measles and smallpox, but theories regarding his death in July 1553 include tuberculosis, bronchopneumonia and non-classic cystic fibrosis.

Queen Mary II (born 1662) died of smallpox in 1694. Poor George II (born 1683) died in 1760 on his close stool after his heart ruptured due to an aortic aneurysm, and George III (born 1738) was plagued with mental problems, possibly as a result of porphyria, and died in January 1820 after falling into a coma. Perhaps that was the most peaceful of these royal deaths.

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MEET GRAPHIC DESIGNER VERITY RIDGWAY!

Verity Ridgway (Photo Credit: Christian Rdgway)

Verity Ridgway
(Photo Credit: Christian Ridgway)

 

Queenanneboleyn.com had the pleasure of interviewing Verity Ridgway, talented graphic designer and writer, back in November 2014. Verity colorized several of the illustrations in Illustrated Kings and Queens of England. To enjoy our delightful conversation with Verity, click here —>>> QAB INTERVIEW: AUTHOR AND GRAPHIC DESIGNER VERITY RIDGWAY.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR!!

Claire Ridgway

Claire Ridgway

Claire Ridgway is the author of best-selling books including:

Claire was also involved in the English translation and editing of Edmond Bapst’s 19th-century French biography of George Boleyn and Henry Howard, now available as TWO GENTLEMAN POETS AT THE COURT OF HENRY VIII.

Claire worked in education and freelance writing before creating The Anne Boleyn Files history website and becoming a full-time history researcher, blogger, and author. The Anne Boleyn Files is known for its historical accuracy and Claire’s mission to get to the truth behind Anne Boleyn’s story. Her writing is easy-to-read and conversational, and readers often comment on how reading Claire’s books is like having a coffee with her and chatting about history.

Claire loves connecting with Tudor history fans and helping authors and aspiring authors.

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IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT!!!!

Claire Ridgway and MadeGlobal Publishing are graciously offering a complimentary copy of Illustrated Kings and Queens of England to one lucky QAB member or browser. If you are interested in being included in a drawing for a chance of winning this wonderful book, send the administrator a message via the website’s contact form. To complete the contact form, click here –> CONTACT US! We will draw a random winner on November 25, 2016. Good Luck!!!

ANNE BOLEYN DAY 2016: Claire Ridgway Discusses Her Love of History

May 19, 2016 in 2016: Anne Boleyn Day by Beth von Staats

ANNEBOLEYNDAY

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Queenanneboleyn.com is sharing with you today the events of ANNE BOLEYN DAY 2016 as they unfold. In this enlightening video, Claire Ridgway of The Anne Boleyn Files shares her love of history.

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VIDEO CREDIT: MadeGlobal Publishing

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Claire Ridgway

Claire Ridgway

Claire Ridgway is the author of the best-selling books George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier & Diplomat  (co-written with Clare Cherry, On This Day in Tudor History, The Fall of Anne Boleyn: A Countdown, The Anne Boleyn Collection and The Anne Boleyn Collection II, Sweating Sickness in a Nutshell, and Tudor Places of Great Britain. Claire was also involved in the English translation and editing of Edmond Bapst’s 19th century French biography of George Boleyn and Henry Howard, now available as Two Gentlemen Poets at the Court of Henry VIII. 

Claire worked in education and freelance writing before creating The Anne Boleyn Files history website and becoming a full-time history researcher, blogger and author. The Anne Boleyn Files is known for its historical accuracy and Claire’s mission to get to the truth behind Anne Boleyn’s story. Her writing is easy-to-read and conversational, and readers often comment on how reading Claire’s books is like having a coffee with her and chatting about history.

Claire is also the founder of The Tudor Society.

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QAB Interview: George Boleyn Biographers Clare Cherry and Claire Ridgway!

May 30, 2014 in QAB Guest Interviews and Chats by Beth von Staats

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Clare Cherry (left) and Claire Ridgway (right)

Clare Cherry (left) and Claire Ridgway (right)

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Today, QAB is delighted to host biographers Clare Cherry and Claire Ridgway, who both currently are enjoying a whirlwind blog tour in celebration of the release of their new book George Boleyn, Tudor Poet, Courtier and Diplomat. Recently, QAB caught up with Clare and Claire to discuss “all things Lord of Rochford”.

Given how prominent an historical figure George Boleyn, Lord of Rochford was during the reign of King Henry VIII, why do you think that your book George Boleyn, Tudor Poet, Courtier and Diplomat is the first biography of this very fascinating young man? To be honest, I found that fact astounding.

Clare: I’m not really sure why George has no other contemporary biographer. There was Bapst writing towards the end of the nineteenth century, but that’s all. Male historians tend to write about the more predominant characters such as Cromwell, Cranmer and Henry himself. Female historians have a tendency to write about female characters, hence we have two biographies on the little known life of Mary Boleyn. I also think that George has been so demonised by fiction in the last thirty years that perhaps no one felt him worthy enough to be researched.

I was quite surprised to learn that the Lord of Rochford was an accomplished poet. Given we have exquisite examples of both Sir Thomas Wyatt’s and Henry Howard, Lord of Surrey’s verses, why does so little of George Boleyn’s poetry survive? After all, the Earl of Surrey was also executed.

Claire: Yes, George was listed in 1575 with the likes of Chaucer, Surrey and Wyatt as a talented poet. We only know about his talent because his contemporaries wrote of it; his poetry is lost or has been attributed to another Tudor poet. Sir John Harington, a 16th century author, attributed “The Lover Complaineth the Unkindness of his Love” to George, so it may well be that we do have one poem by George.

We believe that George’s poetry was deliberately destroyed after his fall, and other poets took the credit for any remaining pieces. George had not only died as a traitor to the Crown, his name had been completely blackened by Henry VIII and Cromwell so his poetry would not have been lauded around the court. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, also died as a traitor but his name was not blackened by charges such as incest and he was executed just a few days before the death of Henry VIII and the start of a new era.

You very comprehensively articulate the Lord of Rochford’s resounding success as a courtier and favorite of King henry VIII. What are the most important skills and attributes of a respected courtier? Besides the Lord of Rochford’s relationship with his sister Anne Boleyn, why do you believe the King enjoyed his company?

Clare: A courtier, as opposed to a politician/diplomat, needed to be able to keep Henry entertained. They were there for the gratification of the King, and if Henry didn’t like them then they wouldn’t last long. They needed to be bright, witty and good company. They also needed to be good sportsmen, and able to joust. George was intelligent, charming and witty. He was also good at tennis, archery etc, and could joust. I think Henry liked him and enjoyed his company. That is shown by the references to payments to George out of the Privy Purse Expenses.

Do you believe that the Lord of Rochford was a true reformer of the Church of England? Or, in contrast, was his religious belief system opportunistic? Just how important was religion to George Boleyn?

Claire: I do believe that George was a true Reformer and not just following a trend or using it for political means. Historian Eric Ives described George’s scaffold speech as George speaking “the language of Zion” and he was really preaching to the crowd. He described himself as “a setter forth of the word of God” and Chapuys backs this up when he complained about George always wanting to enter into “Lutheran” discussions with him.

George prepared two beautiful illuminated manuscripts for Anne and both were based on the works of French reformer Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples. Lefèvre believed that sinners were justified and pardoned by faith alone, through the divine grace of God and Christ’s sacrifice on the cross, and that all the glory should go to God for his mercy and grace. Lefèvre also saw scripture as the highest authority, being the Word of God, and wanted renewal of the Church through scripture and the dissemination of the Bible in people’s native languages. These are texts that George and Anne were reading in private, what they chose to read and what they risked importing from the continent. George was an enthusiastic Evangelical with a true faith.

The Lord of Rochford made several diplomatic missions to France on behalf of King Henry VIII. Why did King Henry trust such a young man with these duties when far more experienced men, such as Sir Francis Bryan and Thomas Boleyn, Lord of Wiltshire were both available?

Clare: Initially George was sent to France with a mentor, but after that first embassy he clearly exhibited a capacity for the role because time and again Henry sent him on delicate missions to France as the diplomat Henry ‘especially loveth and trustith’. George’s intelligence was recognised by the whole court, and I think that irrespective of his age, Henry respected that.

Can you speak to the close relationship between George Boleyn and his sister, Queen Anne Boleyn? Why was Lady Mary Boleyn “odd sibling out” within that family dynamic?

Claire: Unfortunately, we know very little about Mary Boleyn’s relationship with either of her siblings. Anne and George had lots of opportunities to be together, with George serving the King and Anne being queen-in-waiting and then queen, but Mary appears to have steered clear of court after the death of her first husband. Her secret marriage in 1534 caused uproar in the Boleyn family because she should have sought Anne’s permission, or let Anne find her a suitable husband. She married for love and bore the brunt of her family’s wrath as a result, being banished from court. Mary’s words to Cromwell about her family, including her brother, being “so cruel against us”, make it clear that George was also angry with Mary. We don’t know if George ever saw Mary again.

There is a theory that Mary’s alleged misbehaviour in France and her affair with Henry VIII caused the Boleyns to distance themselves from her, so perhaps that’s why she appears to be the “odd sibling out”.

In your book, you eloquently detail the dramatic fall of the Boleyn family, as well of the course of events specific to the Lord of Rochford’s arrest, interrogation, imprisonment, trial and execution. Can you share with browsers why contemporaries developed a strong respect for George Boleyn in how he comported himself during these darkest and obviously acutely anxiety provoking days?

Clare: George was incredibly brave at his trial and execution. Most people knew he was innocent, and so I think he was greatly respected for how he handled the whole travesty of justice.

What do you believe is the Lord of Rochford’s greatest legacy?

Claire: In a physical sense, the two manuscripts he produced for Anne: Les Epistres and The Ecclesiaste. They are exquisite and his dedication to Anne is beautiful, and very tongue-in-cheek. That short dedication gives us an insight into his personality and the siblings’ close relationship.

George was a man of real courage and conviction. He had his faults, but in his last days in the Tower he showed compassion for others when he worried about those he owed money to and those who owed him, and his scaffold speech is incredible. His warning to “trust not in the vanity of the world, and especially in the flatterings of the court, and the favour and treacheries of Fortune” is as true today as it was then.

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Book Review!

Book Review!

EDITOR’S NOTE: To check out QAB’s review of George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier and Diplomat, CLICK HERE.

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New Release!

New Release!

Clare Cherry: (Source: George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier & Diplomat) Clare lives in Hampshire with her partner David. She works as a solicitor in Dorset, but has a passion for Tudor history and began researching the life of George Boleyn in 2006. She started corresponding with Claire Ridgway in late 2009, after meeting through The Anne Boleyn Files website, and the two Tudor enthusiasts became firm friends. Clare divides her time between the legal profession and researching Tudor history. Clare has written guest articles on George Boleyn for The Anne Boleyn Files, Nerdalicious.com.au, and author Susan Bordo’s The Creation of Anne Boleyn website.

Claire Ridgway: (Source: George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier & Diplomat) Claire is the author of the best-selling books On This Day in Tudor History, The Fall of Anne Boleyn: A Countdown, The Anne Boleyn Collection, and The Anne Boleyn Collection II, as well as Interviews With Indi Authors: Top Tips From Successful Self-Published Authors. Claire was also involved in the English translation and editing of Edmond Bapst’s 19th century French biography of George Boleyn and Henry Howard, now available as Two Gentleman Poets at the Court of Henry VIII.

Claire worked in education and freelance writing before creating The Anne Boleyn Files history website and becoming a full-time history researcher, blogger and author. The Anne Boleyn Files is known for its historical accuracy and Claire’s mission to get to the truth behind Anne Boleyn’s story. Her writing is easy-to-read and conversational, and readers often comment on how reading Claire’s books is like having a coffee with her and chatting about history.

TO PURCHASE, CLICK THE LINK BELOW

  George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier & Diplomat  

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WIN

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT!!!!

Clare Cherry and Claire Ridgway are graciously offering a complimentary copy of George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier and Diplomat to one lucky QAB member or browser. If you are interested in being included in a drawing for a chance of winning this wonderful book, send the administrator a message via the website’s contact form. To complete the contact form, click here –> CONTACT US! We will draw a random winner on June 6, 2014. Good Luck!!!

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QAB Guest Post: George Boleyn’s Dedication to Anne Boleyn, by Claire Ridgway

April 30, 2014 in 2014 May Tribute to Queen Anne Boleyn, Anne Boleyn Fact Articles, Guest Writers by Claire Ridgway

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This bronze bust of Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples in the courtyard of the museum Quentovic.

This bronze bust of Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples is in the courtyard of the museum Quentovic.

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Amongst Anne Boleyn’s collection of books was a beautiful illuminated manuscript of Les Epistres et Evangiles des cinquante et deux sepmaines de l’an (The Epistles and Gospels for the Fifty-two Weeks of the Year) by French theologian and Reformer Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples. Anne’s copy of Les Epistres consists of the dates of the liturgical calendar written in English followed by the Epistle or Gospel in French and Lefèvre’s exhortation. Illuminations include those of Anne’s arms, medallions of the four evangelists, and a miniature of the crucifixion, but what is more interesting to those researching the Boleyns is the dedication.

It was once thought that the manuscript, which has suffered some water damage, was produced for Anne by Henry Parker, Lord Morley, father of Jane Parker (George Boleyn’s wife), but in 1998, with the help of ultraviolet light, James Carley discovered an inscription above the dedication:

“To the right honourable lady, the Lady Marchioness of Pembroke, her most loving and friendly brother sendeth greetings.”

It is clear from those words that the manuscript was produced for Anne by George Boleyn, Lord Rochford, her brother, and not Lord Morley. The visible part of the dedication reads:

Our friendly dealings, with so divers and sundry benefits, besides the perpetual bond of blood, have so often bound me, Madam, inwardly to love you, that in every of them I must perforce become your debtor for want of power, but nothing of my good will. And were it not that by experience your gentleness is daily proved, your meek fashion often times put into use, I might well despair in myself, studying to acquit your deserts towards me, or embolden myself with so poor a thing to present to you. But, knowing these perfectly to reign in you with more, I have been so bold to send unto you, not jewels or gold, whereof you have plenty, not pearl or rich stones, whereof you have enough, but a rude translation of a well-willer, a goodly matter meanly handled, most humbly desiring you with favour to weigh the weakness of my dull wit, and patiently to pardon where any fault is, always considering that by your commandment I have adventured to do this, without the which it had not been in me to have performed it. But that hath had power to make me pass my wit, which like as in this I have been ready to fulfil, so in all other things at all times I shall be ready to obey, praying him on whom this book treats, to grant you many years to his pleasure and shortly to increase in heart’s ease with honour.

It is a useful dedication for historians and researchers because it makes it clear that George produced the manuscript at his sister’s command and it shows their joint interest in evangelical literature. However, it is also important because it gives us a glimpse of the relationship between the siblings.

The dedication refers to Anne as the Marchioness of Pembroke, which was a title she did not receive until 1 September 1532, and it may well be that George translated the manuscript as a gift for her upon her being granted the honour, or as a New Year gift in January 1533. It covertly refers to a possible forthcoming marriage, “shortly to increase in heart’s ease with honour”, and Anne married Henry VIII on 25 January 1533. In the dedication, George sets out beautifully expressed compliments to his obviously much-loved sister. This highly intelligent young man incorporates in the dedication the type of self-deprecation that only the very clever would risk, knowing that it would be received by a recipient who could fully appreciates the false modesty. Be that as it may, George clearly demonstrates an anxiety as to whether his translation will please his sister. He does, however, include the proviso that if there are faults, she is to remember that it was she who asked him for the translation in the first place. The dedication refers to Anne’s, “meek fashion”, for which she was not particularly renowned, and claims that George is not giving her jewels and so on, since she has enough of them. It is possible to read this as a dedication by a younger brother to his sister which is not only caring and affectionate, but also written with a little jovial cheekiness.

Anne’s copy of Les Epistres et Evangiles des cinquante et deux sepmaines de l’an can be found in the British Library (Harley MS 6561). It is a beautiful gift from a loving, but cheeky, younger brother.

(Some of this article is taken from George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier and Diplomat by Clare Cherry and Claire Ridgway)

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Notes and Sources

* Harley MS 6561, folio 2r., Preface by George Boleyn

* “Her moost lovyng and fryndely brother sendeth gretyng – Anne Boleyn’s Manuscripts and Their Sources” by James P. Carley in Illuminating the Book edited by Michelle P. Brown and Scot McKendrick, The British Library and University of Toronto Press, 1998.

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Eric Ives

I can honestly say that I would not be doing what I’m doing today without Eric Ives. I call his book on Anne Boleyn my “Anne Boleyn Bible” and recommend it all the time to people because it covers every aspect of Anne’s life. I was fortunate to meet Eric twice and I must confess to grilling the poor man over dinner. He was so patient and answered all of my questions. When he spoke to our group he opened his talk by telling us to stop him when we’d had enough because he could talk about Anne Boleyn “until the cows came home”. None of us stopped him, we could have listened to him all night. He was an expert in his field, but he also ‘loved’ Anne Boleyn and it’s this passion for his subject which shines through in his work and which has grabbed people all over the world and pulled them into Anne’s story. He is sorely missed.

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NEW RELEASE: George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier and Diplomat

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Clare Cherry (left) and Claire Ridgway (right)

Clare Cherry (left) and Claire Ridgway (right)

Clare Cherry: (Source: George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier & Diplomat) Clare lives in Hampshire with her partner David. She works as a solicitor in Dorset, but has a passion for Tudor history and began researching the life of George Boleyn in 2006. She started corresponding with Claire Ridgway in late 2009, after meeting through The Anne Boleyn Files website, and the two Tudor enthusiasts became firm friends. Clare divides her time between the legal profession and researching Tudor history. Clare has written guest articles on George Boleyn for The Anne Boleyn Files, Nerdalicious.com.au, and author Susan Bordo’s The Creation of Anne Boleyn website.

Claire Ridgway: (Source: George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier & Diplomat) Claire is the author of the best-selling books ON THIS DAY IN TUDOR HISTORY, THE FALL OF ANNE BOLEYN: A COUNTDOWN, THE ANNE BOLEYN COLLECTION, and THE ANNE BOLEYN COLLECTION II, as well as INTERVIEWS WITH INDIE AUTHORS: TOP TIPS FROM SUCCESSFUL SELF-PUBLISHED AUTHORS. Claire was also involved in the English translation and editing of Edmond Bapst’s 19th century French biography of George Boleyn and Henry Howard, now available as TWO GENTLEMAN POETS AT THE COURT OF HENRY VIII.

Claire worked in education and freelance writing before creating The Anne Boleyn Files history website and becoming a full-time history researcher, blogger and author. The Anne Boleyn Files is known for its historical accuracy and Claire’s mission to get to the truth behind Anne Boleyn’s story. Her writing is easy-to-read and conversational, and readers often comment on how reading Claire’s books is like having a coffee with her and chatting about history.

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New Release!

TO PURCHASE, CLICK THE LINK BELOW

  George Boleyn: Tudor Poet, Courtier & Diplomat  

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